Wednesday, November 11, 2009


On the first day of our internship, most of us seemed nervous. First of all, we did not know what we would be doing in the lab, & were thinking how we would deal with people who were new to us.

I texted one of my friends & asked her to meet me at a certain place so we could go to the laboratory together. When we got to the lab, Ma'am L entertained us. She told us that there were no schedules nor lists of sections where each of us would stay. To settle things, she allowed us stay at the conference room, where they decided to have us rotate at each section, which seemed to be our second preceptorship.

Tuesday, September 8, 2009

Drug Testing in schools... AGREE or DISAGREE???

When we say drugs, of course we refer to drugs that are being prohibited. Some of these are marijuana, shabu and ecstacy to name a few. For me, schools and universities should screen or have their students and employees tested for drug use. The school is a place for students to learn things that will help them learn more than what they can learn in the world outside school. So everything should be in place for the student's proper growth.

When a person is under the influence of drugs, he has this feeling of well- being. Some say that it's like you own the world and that problems are being lost. The truth is, problems are still there. They were never lost. You may forget them momentarily but when the effect of drug is lost, you'll think of those problems again and then you'll take another drug so as to forget those problems again "momentarily". These drugs are not the solution to problems. Some say that these drugs are a way of "escaping" the problems, as well as the feelings felt whenever the user thought of their problems. But if a person always escape with his problems, he is stagnant. Because the solutions to these problems are not met. Problems are not really solved which will eventually lead to another problem, resulting to a worse scenario.

Through random drug testing, the use of prohibited drugs will be lessened. The school will be more conducive for student's learning and will learn more. On the otherhand, those who had used prohibited drugs may be subjected to counseling and the like so as for them to understand better what will be the drug's effects if further used.

Thursday, August 27, 2009

Do You Think You Answered The Questions Correctly? Let's Find Out...

1. RIA is a test used to measure the concentrations of antigens in the body.

2-4. For the test to be performed, three components should be present. There should be the radiolabeled antigen, the antibody specific to the antigen, and the natural antigen, which is present in the patient's serum.

5. The concentration of the labeled antigen is inversely proportional to the concentration of the natural antigen because these antigens compete for the binding sites of the antibodies.

6-7. The Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was made known in the 1950s by Rosalyn Yalow and Solomon Aaron Berson.

8. Rosalyn Yalow developed RIA for the hormone insulin. This became an advancement for testing in the field of endocrinology, which made her a recipient of Nobel Prize in Medicine.

9. Antigens are labeled and made radioactive by the using gamma-radioactive isotopes of iodine, which is then attached to tyrosin.

10. More of the unlabeled antigens ( or "cold" antigens) are binding to the antibodies when its concentration is increased.


1. Since there is a lump on the patient's throat, the thyroid might be infected so the thyroid hormone is tested to confirm the patient's condition. The levels of FT3, FT4, TT4 and TSH are measured.

2. The patient's diagnosis is hyperthyroidism. If a patient has hyperthyroidism, the levels of FT3,FT4 and TT4 are increased; while the TSH level is decreased. On the otherhand, in patients with hypothyroidism, the results were opposite. Their FT3, FT4 and TT4 levels are decreased; and their TSH level is increased.

3. There are other tests that can be used in the detection of the thyroid abnormality. Blood samples are usually tested.

  • The doctor may request a thyroid scan to check if there are certain abnormalities in the thyroids function and appearance.
  • Ultrasound is also requested if there are irregularities in the thyroid. This is a diagnostic test which use a high frequency of soundwaves to create an image of the thyroid.
  • CT scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are also used as a confirmatory test to view the thyroid galnd and see if there are any physical or functional abnormalities.

4. Signs and symptoms may vary depending on the severity of the disease. But comon signs and symptoms are:

  • weight loss
  • tremors
  • vision problems
  • shaking
  • nervousness
  • patient easily gets tired
  • exolpthalmia
  • goiter or enlargement of thyroid
  • diarrhea
  • palpitation
  • In women, there may be menstrual cycle irregularities.

5. In this test, antigens which are of known amount or quantity are made radioactive. These antigens, which are now radioactive, are then mixed with antibodies of that antigens. Which result the two to bind chemically to one another. Then, a serum sample from a patient which contain an unknown amount or quantity of the same antigens is then added. This cause the unlabeled antigens from the patient's serum to compete with the radiolabeled antigens for binding sites in the antibody.









Tuesday, August 25, 2009


1. This technique measures the concentration of which substance?

2-4. In RIA, what are the three components that should be present for the test to be performed?

5. The concentration of the labeled antigen is (directly/ inversely) proportional to the natural antigen.

6-7. Who developed the RIA technique?

8. One of the developers of RIA received a Nobel Prize for what hormone?

9. What is the reagent or material used for labeling antigens?

10. More of the unlabeled antigens are binding to the antibodies when the unlabeled antigen's concentration is (increased/ decreased).


A 20 year old female noticed that there is a lump found on her throat. She also observed that she gained weight in the past weeks. Her hands felt cold and that she was always nervous. She went to the doctor and had her blood tested. Radioimmunoassay was the test performed. The results showed that she has hyperthyroidism.

  • What is/are the hormones tested that confirmed the patient's condition?
  • What are the expected results in the said condition?
  • Are there other test/s that should be done for the confirmation of the patient's condition? Give a brief explanation.
  • What other signs & symptoms seen in patients with hyperthyroidism?
  • In your own words, state the principle of radioimmunoassay.


Tuesday, August 18, 2009

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

This technique which is very sensitive and is used to measure the concentrations of antigens. Radioimmunoassay technique is a specific and sensitive test, but this technique need a special equipment, which is costly. Substances used in this test are radioactive, so special precautions are to be observed.

Radioimmunoassay or RIA is one of the tests used to help the clinician determine the levels of hormones in a patient. Estrogen is one of these hormone. The level of estrogen is important to be measured because an increase or decrease of its level is unhealthy and may be detrimental to the patient.


In this test, antigens which are of known amount or quantity are made radioactive. These antigens, which are now radioactive, are then mixed with antibodies of that antigens. Which result the two to bind chemically to one another. Then, a serum sample from a patient which contain an unknown amount or quantity of the same antigens is then added. This cause the unlabeled antigens from the patient's serum to compete with the radiolabeled antigens for binding sites in the antibody.


Wednesday, July 29, 2009

Top 10 Emerging Influential Bloggers for 2009

These are the top bloggers I nominate for the Top 10 Emerging Influential Bloggers for 2009.

In order to write something inspiring, a blogger must have to have passion. These blogs are not just ordinary blogs. These blogs are really inspiring especially to bloggers like me. They are not just pieces of articles on knowledge or work that the bloggers wanted to share but these blogs are part of who they are. Check on my list of blogs. They may inspire you like they did to me.

1. Holly Jahangiri - It's All a Matter of Perspective: Mine

2. Dr. Lorenzo Bernardino - Zorlone

3. Jan Geronimo - Writing to Exhale

4. Roy dela Cruz - The Struggling Blogger

5. Angel Cuala - Fatherbloggerdotcom

6. Kelvin Servigon - Kelvinonian Ideas 2

7. Irene - Lifelots

8. Bing - I Love/Hate America

9. Luke - A Walk in the Dark

10.Dee - Tales from the Mom Side

The blogs I mentioned are really great. Two thumbs up to you all. Keep inspiring people by your blogs. Godbless..

The contest is sponsored by:

They are Absolute Traders, My Brute Cheats, Business Summaries, Fitness Advantage Club, Events and Corporate Video, Events at Work, Dominguez Marketing Communications, Red Mobile, Budget hotel in Makati, Lucio C. Tan Group of Companies, and

Tuesday, July 14, 2009

A Poem on Estrogen

by Aubrey Gabral

Estrogen is found in females.
How come some were present in males?
It is found in the ovaries.
A small amount are on the testes.

It plays a role in sperm maturation.
Without it there is no reproduction.
But high levels were indications,
That male might be in bad situations

Women are still the priority,
Because these are seen in puberty.
Levels are high during pregnancy,
Some elevate it by therapy.

It lowers down bad cholesterole.
Which is an advantage for us all.
Levels should be monitored,
Effects of these shouldn't be ignored.

Monday, June 29, 2009


1-3 Estrogens are primarily found in the fat tissues, adrenal glands, placenta, corpus luteum and in the ovaries.

4-6 The estrogens found in women are Estradiol, Estrone and Estriol.

7 These are known as the steroidal estrogens.

8 Estriol is the placental estrogen. It is primarily found in women who are pregnant.

9-10 Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and the Luteinizing Hormones (LH).

Case Study:

Case 1

The estrogen is said to lower the LDL or what is known as the BAD cholesterol. When LDL is increased, the arteries become less flexible, causing the lack of oxygen distribution to some parts of the body, including the brain.

How to lessen the risk of vascular dementia:

  • Exercise
  • Keep blood pressure and cholesterol levels normal.
  • Keep blood sugar in target range if you a diabetic.
  • Lower the homocysteine.
  • Controlling of inflammation.
  • Use of Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Case 2

Estrogen is the hormone responsible for the secondary characteristics in women.

One of these secondary characteristics is the enlargement of breasts in women. Studies show that during the puberty stage, estrogen may be at its peak. Mutations may occur in these breast cells especially if a woman is exposed to radiation.

Breast cancer is more common in older women than in younger ones because the longer the years a woman has high estrogen level, the higher is the risk for breast cancer.

This shows that women who had their menstruation before the age of 12 and those who had their menopausal period after the age of 55 have higher risk for having breast cancer.



Medicine Net



Tuesday, June 16, 2009



1-3. Give at least 3 sites where estrogen are found or produced.
4-6. What are the 3 types of estrogen found primarily on human?
7. These are estrogen found in the body.
8. Estrogen primarily produced in the placenta.
9-10. Hormones that stimulates the production of estrogen.

Case study
11-15. A 87 year old man was brought to the hospital with a complaint of memory loss, agitation, loss of concentration and he gets tired easily. After some tests done, he was diagnosed to have a vascular dementia. What is the association of estrogen in the case? What are the things to be done to lessen the risks of vascilar dementia?

16-20. A 28 year old woman was diagnosed of breast cancer. There is no history of the disease in the family. Does the level of estrogen associated in the case? Explain.

Wednesday, June 3, 2009

Clinical Chemistry Blognotes 12

Photo source:


Female: Menstrual cycle. Pregnancy.

Breast enlargement. Wide pelis.

Increased Height.


Estrogens are known as a female hormones. These are group of steroid hormones which are found to have estrogenic characteristics. Estrogens are found in the fat tissues, in the adrenal glands, placenta, in the corpus luteum and in the ovaries, which are stimulated by the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and the Luteinizing Hormones (LH).

There are also trace amount of estrogen found in males. Estrogen plays a role in the maturation of sperms. Estrogen also regulates the production of cholesterole. It decreases the amount of plaque build up to prevent infarction.

Two types of Estrogens

There are different kinds of estrogens. Some are naturally occuring in the body and the others are either artificially produced or naturally occur in plants.

  • Estrogens which are found in the body are known as the steroidal estrogens. There are three estrogens which are inherently found in women, These are Estradiol 17-B, Estrone and Estriol. Women who are not pregnant, Estrdiol 17-B is the hormone present. But as the woman ages and is in post menopausal stage, the Estradiol 17-B present is decreased and it is replaced by Estrone, which is weaker than Estradiol. The estrogen estriol is primarily produced by the placenta, therefore making it primarily the estrogen of pregnancy.


    World of Molecules
  • Other estrogens are produced artificially, or may be naturally occuring in nature. Though these may have estrogenic capabilities, these are not necessarily classified as steroids which are like the ones being produced by mammals. These are called the nonsteroidal estrogens. Examples of which is the estrogen produced by plants, which is also known as the phyto estrogen. Substances which are artificially produced are called xenoestrogens.

Functions of Estrogens

  • It is responsible for the development of secondary characteristics in women.

  • Responsible for burning of fats in metabolism.

  • It is responsible for the thickening of the endometrium and vaginal walls.

  • For the growth of the uterine.

  • It increases the adhessiveness of the platelets.

  • It decrease the LDL level and at the same time increasing the HDL level
  • This is also plays a role in the wter and salt balance.

  • In males, some reproductive functions are being regulated by estrogen for the maturation of sperms.

A 24 hour urine or a venous blood is collected. Saliva may also be tested depending on the test requested by the physician.

Why test for Estrogen?

  • It is tested to know if the woman has undergone the menopausal period.
  • Determine if there is a problem in the fetus or in the mother's pregnancy.
  • To detect if there is an abnormal level of hormones especially in girls who are enetering the puberty stage.
  • To explain abnormally high production of estrogen level in males, which may give unusual sexual characteristics, and to know if there are problems in their organs such as the testicles, which may cause the production of tumor cells.

Clinical Significance:

Elevated level


  • Liver problems in both male and female.
  • It may indicate tumors of the adrenal gland in both male and female.
  • Tumor in the ovaries in female. (it may also increase in females who are undergoing hormone therapy for the treatment of infertility.)
  • In males, it may be indicated by testicular tumor.


  • Multiple pregnancy.
  • Ectopic pregnancy.
  • Early puberty.

Decrease level


  • This may indicate the female is in her menopausal period.
  • Ovaries are not functioning well.
  • Anorexia nervosa also cause a decrease in the level of estrogen.


  • In pregnant women, a sudden deacrease or if the level of estriol is low, it is an indicative of fetal and/or placental problems.
  • Menopause.

Normal levels of Estrogen:

Children: 0-15 pg/ml or 0-55 pmol/L

Males: 10=50 pg/ml or 37-184 pmol/L

Females before menopausal period: 30-400 pg/ml or110-1,468 pmol/L

Females after menopausal period: 0-30 pg/ml or 0-110 pmol/L

In pregnant women:

At the first trimester: <>

At the second trimester: 38-140 ng/ml

At the third trimester: 31-460 ng/ml

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors which may affect the test:

  • Diabetes.
  • Drugs like clomiphene and steroids.
  • Birth control pills.
  • Hormonal Replacement therapy for females who are on the menopausal stage.

Healthy Women
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