Monday, June 29, 2009


1-3 Estrogens are primarily found in the fat tissues, adrenal glands, placenta, corpus luteum and in the ovaries.

4-6 The estrogens found in women are Estradiol, Estrone and Estriol.

7 These are known as the steroidal estrogens.

8 Estriol is the placental estrogen. It is primarily found in women who are pregnant.

9-10 Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and the Luteinizing Hormones (LH).

Case Study:

Case 1

The estrogen is said to lower the LDL or what is known as the BAD cholesterol. When LDL is increased, the arteries become less flexible, causing the lack of oxygen distribution to some parts of the body, including the brain.

How to lessen the risk of vascular dementia:

  • Exercise
  • Keep blood pressure and cholesterol levels normal.
  • Keep blood sugar in target range if you a diabetic.
  • Lower the homocysteine.
  • Controlling of inflammation.
  • Use of Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Case 2

Estrogen is the hormone responsible for the secondary characteristics in women.

One of these secondary characteristics is the enlargement of breasts in women. Studies show that during the puberty stage, estrogen may be at its peak. Mutations may occur in these breast cells especially if a woman is exposed to radiation.

Breast cancer is more common in older women than in younger ones because the longer the years a woman has high estrogen level, the higher is the risk for breast cancer.

This shows that women who had their menstruation before the age of 12 and those who had their menopausal period after the age of 55 have higher risk for having breast cancer.



Medicine Net



Tuesday, June 16, 2009



1-3. Give at least 3 sites where estrogen are found or produced.
4-6. What are the 3 types of estrogen found primarily on human?
7. These are estrogen found in the body.
8. Estrogen primarily produced in the placenta.
9-10. Hormones that stimulates the production of estrogen.

Case study
11-15. A 87 year old man was brought to the hospital with a complaint of memory loss, agitation, loss of concentration and he gets tired easily. After some tests done, he was diagnosed to have a vascular dementia. What is the association of estrogen in the case? What are the things to be done to lessen the risks of vascilar dementia?

16-20. A 28 year old woman was diagnosed of breast cancer. There is no history of the disease in the family. Does the level of estrogen associated in the case? Explain.

Wednesday, June 3, 2009

Clinical Chemistry Blognotes 12

Photo source:


Female: Menstrual cycle. Pregnancy.

Breast enlargement. Wide pelis.

Increased Height.


Estrogens are known as a female hormones. These are group of steroid hormones which are found to have estrogenic characteristics. Estrogens are found in the fat tissues, in the adrenal glands, placenta, in the corpus luteum and in the ovaries, which are stimulated by the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and the Luteinizing Hormones (LH).

There are also trace amount of estrogen found in males. Estrogen plays a role in the maturation of sperms. Estrogen also regulates the production of cholesterole. It decreases the amount of plaque build up to prevent infarction.

Two types of Estrogens

There are different kinds of estrogens. Some are naturally occuring in the body and the others are either artificially produced or naturally occur in plants.

  • Estrogens which are found in the body are known as the steroidal estrogens. There are three estrogens which are inherently found in women, These are Estradiol 17-B, Estrone and Estriol. Women who are not pregnant, Estrdiol 17-B is the hormone present. But as the woman ages and is in post menopausal stage, the Estradiol 17-B present is decreased and it is replaced by Estrone, which is weaker than Estradiol. The estrogen estriol is primarily produced by the placenta, therefore making it primarily the estrogen of pregnancy.


    World of Molecules
  • Other estrogens are produced artificially, or may be naturally occuring in nature. Though these may have estrogenic capabilities, these are not necessarily classified as steroids which are like the ones being produced by mammals. These are called the nonsteroidal estrogens. Examples of which is the estrogen produced by plants, which is also known as the phyto estrogen. Substances which are artificially produced are called xenoestrogens.

Functions of Estrogens

  • It is responsible for the development of secondary characteristics in women.

  • Responsible for burning of fats in metabolism.

  • It is responsible for the thickening of the endometrium and vaginal walls.

  • For the growth of the uterine.

  • It increases the adhessiveness of the platelets.

  • It decrease the LDL level and at the same time increasing the HDL level
  • This is also plays a role in the wter and salt balance.

  • In males, some reproductive functions are being regulated by estrogen for the maturation of sperms.

A 24 hour urine or a venous blood is collected. Saliva may also be tested depending on the test requested by the physician.

Why test for Estrogen?

  • It is tested to know if the woman has undergone the menopausal period.
  • Determine if there is a problem in the fetus or in the mother's pregnancy.
  • To detect if there is an abnormal level of hormones especially in girls who are enetering the puberty stage.
  • To explain abnormally high production of estrogen level in males, which may give unusual sexual characteristics, and to know if there are problems in their organs such as the testicles, which may cause the production of tumor cells.

Clinical Significance:

Elevated level


  • Liver problems in both male and female.
  • It may indicate tumors of the adrenal gland in both male and female.
  • Tumor in the ovaries in female. (it may also increase in females who are undergoing hormone therapy for the treatment of infertility.)
  • In males, it may be indicated by testicular tumor.


  • Multiple pregnancy.
  • Ectopic pregnancy.
  • Early puberty.

Decrease level


  • This may indicate the female is in her menopausal period.
  • Ovaries are not functioning well.
  • Anorexia nervosa also cause a decrease in the level of estrogen.


  • In pregnant women, a sudden deacrease or if the level of estriol is low, it is an indicative of fetal and/or placental problems.
  • Menopause.

Normal levels of Estrogen:

Children: 0-15 pg/ml or 0-55 pmol/L

Males: 10=50 pg/ml or 37-184 pmol/L

Females before menopausal period: 30-400 pg/ml or110-1,468 pmol/L

Females after menopausal period: 0-30 pg/ml or 0-110 pmol/L

In pregnant women:

At the first trimester: <>

At the second trimester: 38-140 ng/ml

At the third trimester: 31-460 ng/ml

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors which may affect the test:

  • Diabetes.
  • Drugs like clomiphene and steroids.
  • Birth control pills.
  • Hormonal Replacement therapy for females who are on the menopausal stage.

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